今日NEWS

Pandemic vs. endemic vs. epidemic: What they mean – Medical News Today

0

Pandemic, endemic, and epidemic are all terms that describe how far a disease or pathogen has spread within a geographical region or population.
An endemic disease is one that is always present throughout a region or group of people and remains fairly consistent. An example of this is coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever, which is endemic to the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
An epidemic occurs when a disease unexpectedly increases among a large population or region. An example is ebola, which spread rapidly throughout West Africa in 2014–2016.
A pandemic spreads across multiple countries or continents, affecting large numbers of people. An example of this is COVID-19, which results from a coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 that first appeared in one region before spreading around the world.
In this article, we look at the differences between pandemic, endemic, and epidemic diseases. We also give more examples of each and explain which is most severe.
An endemic disease is one that is always present throughout a specific region or population. The prevalence of the disease remains fairly stable and predictable over time.
Some examples of endemic conditions include:
An epidemic occurs when a disease spreads unexpectedly or quickly across a geographical area or population. It can occur if an endemic disease suddenly becomes more prevalent, or if a new disease begins to affect a region or group.
Many examples of epidemics involve contagious illnesses, but there are exceptions.
Some examples of epidemics include:
A pandemic occurs when a disease spreads across countries or continents. Scientists may determine that a disease has become a pandemic if it spreads at a very fast rate, with new cases appearing every day.
Pandemics have become more likely due to international travel. People travel to different countries and continents more often than before. Greater urbanization also means that many people live in densely populated towns and cities. This proximity allows the rapid transmission of pathogens from person to person.
Changes in how people use land and exploit the natural environment also play a role. Several pandemics from the past few decades have been zoonotic diseases, which means that they result from viruses that originally affected a species of animal.
However, close contact between animals and humans increases the likelihood of such viruses evolving and adapting to infect humans, too. Some examples of activities that increase the chance of this include:
Some examples of pandemics include:
The terms “pandemic,” “epidemic,” and “endemic” do not describe the severity of a disease. Instead, they describe its prevalence. This means that one is not inherently worse than the other.
For example, it is possible for an endemic illness to devastate communities and economies. The term indicates that the level of disease remains steady, rather than the number of cases.
It is also possible to have mild pandemics, in which an illness travels rapidly to many regions but does not cause severe illness or death. In contrast, an epidemic could be severe, causing significant illness and death in most of the people whom it affects.
What someone considers to be the worst depends on what they are measuring. In terms of scale, pandemics are the largest and have the biggest potential to cause worldwide disruption. Whether they fulfill this potential depends on the disease and how humans respond to it.
An endemic disease can become an epidemic or pandemic, and vice versa.
An example of this is cholera. This illness occurs when a person swallows water or food containing Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It originated in India, but in the 19th century, it caused an outbreak that ultimately spread across the globe.
This cholera pandemic was the first of seven. The seventh, which still affects South Asia, Africa, and the Americas, is ongoing.
However, in many places, cholera has become endemic. This means that it is constantly present at relatively steady levels. Epidemics can also occur, even in locations without endemic cholera.
An endemic disease is not necessarily inevitable, and action may still be necessary to stop it. Cholera, for example, is a treatable and preventable disease. Clean water, sanitation, rehydration treatment, and vaccines can easily prevent many of the deaths that cholera currently causes.
Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic are all terms that scientists use to categorize diseases in terms of how widespread they are.
An endemic condition is one that is constant among a population or area, while an epidemic is a sudden spike in cases in one population or location. A pandemic is similar, but it spreads farther, affecting multiple regions or continents.
The severity of a disease depends on several factors. Due to this, although a pandemic affects a higher number of people, it is not necessarily more lethal than an epidemic or an endemic disease.
Last medically reviewed on February 25, 2022
13 sourcescollapsed
A pandemic can happen when a disease spreads between countries and continents. A recent example of a pandemic is COVID-19. Read more here.
What are the similarities and differences between HIV and SARS-CoV-2 and their respective pandemics? Read on to learn more.
Swine flu, or H1N1, moved from pigs to people in 2009 and caused a pandemic. It is now a relatively common type of flu, and most people have some…
Cholera is a bacterial disease that causes diarrhea and severe dehydration. It is easy to treat but yet is responsible for more than 100,000 deaths a…
OUR BRANDS

source

admin

15 Most Deceptive Food Label Terms That Are Fooling You — Eat This Not That – Eat This, Not That

Previous article

Coronavirus Notebook: Hearings On Pandemic Treaty Begin, New Risk-Sharing Partnership To Boost COVAX Efforts – Pink Sheet

Next article

You may also like

Comments

發表迴響

More in 今日NEWS